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Androgenetic alopecia (AGA), or male pattern baldness, is a common condition observed in men where hair follicles gradually decline in size and lead to baldness over time.
Topical Minoxidil was the first drug approved by the FDA for treatment of AGA. Minoxidil is converted to Minoxidil Sulphate, which is the active form of the drug that opens ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cell membranes, resulting in a vasodilatory effect, that increases blood flow, prevents hair cell death, and stimulates hair growth. Minoxidil causes increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA in the dermal papillae, activation of cytoprotective prostaglandin synthase-1, an enzyme that stimulates hair growth, along with increased expression of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) m-RNA, which is another growth promoter.
Studies suggest 10-50% of men with crown hair loss, experience significant results with Minoxidil.